Providing information about the state of your repository right there in the command prompt is something you’d set up in your terminal environment. Could you have previously being using a different terminal, and now you’re using the default one?
If you’re a Windows user, I recommend you download and use Git Bash for Windows:
It uses unix style syntax for commands, and you will find that almost all tutorials, blog posts, and stack overflow answers use the same syntax, so it will make everything easier in the future. It also shows you the kind of information in the prompt that you’re looking for.
You can customize what information the prompt shows you, too! This third party article has a lot of ideas: